Skincare & Ingredients Glossary

1 Acne

The three factors in acne breakouts are oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria, and if any of these factors are out of balance, breakouts can occur. Acne is more likely to take place on the skin when experiencing stress, hormonal changes, excess oil production, and slower cell turnover with aging.


2 Active Ingredient

Over The Counter (OTC) actives are ingredients regulated by the FDA. Examples are Sun Protection Factor (SPF), Benzoyl Peroxide, Hydroquinone, Sulfur, and Salicylic Acid. The FDA requires that these ingredients submit to and successfully pass clinical testing and subscribe to labeling standards including usage instructions and benefit claims.


3 Adaptogens

Adaptogens are a category of ingredients that come from various plants and herbs like maca, ashwagandha, and mushrooms, and provide adaptive or customizable skin support by assisting with your body's natural defenses. They specifically are thought to support your body’s stress responses, internal and external (like changing seasons). For skin they provide many benefits including customized moisture, strengthened skin barrier and protection against oxidative stress. They have been used in Chinese medicine for centuries and are now being incorporated into modern skincare products.


4 Alcohol

There are different types of alcohol used in cosmetics for different reasons. SD Alcohol stands for 'specially denatured' alcohol, which is designed especially for cosmetics use to evaporate quickly, leaving the active ingredients on the skin's surface. Fatty alcohols are made from fatty acids and can be used as emollients, thickeners, or carrying agents for other ingredients. They attract water to keep moisture in the skin and can repel water to form a protective skin barrier. They also create a creamy texture.


5 Algae (Seaweed)

Algae is used in skincare to help support natural collagen, reduce visible wrinkles, and ensure moisture balance in the skin. It is considered by some to be the world's most basic yet complete food. Both in the diet and in skincare products, algae can provide vitamins, minerals, trace elements, amino acids and fatty acids that are important for maintaining healthy and youthful skin.


6 Alguronic Acid

Alguronic Acid is exclusively found in Algenist skincare products and is produced by microalgae. Its unique properties create visible skincare results. It has been shown to support natural collagen and elastin, and boost skin renewal to even skin tone and texture.


7 Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs)

Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) loosen the "glue" that attaches dead skin cells to the surface of the skin; they also support natural hyaluronic acid to boost hydration and can help to reduce the appearance of surface pigmentation and enhance radiance, and to smooth texture. The most commonly used AHAs are Glycolic and Lactic Acid.


8 Aloe Vera

Aloe is one of the oldest recognized botanicals with skincare benefits such as soothing and cooling the skin (including for after-sun use) and providing lightweight hydration. Drinking aloe vera juice is a popular practice because of the belief that it provides minerals, amino acids, and vitamins.


9 Alpha Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid)

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA or Thioctic Acid) is used skincare to energize 'tired' skin in the same way it helps the body to make the most of energy sources. It lessens the appearance of redness, enlarged pores, and surface imperfections. It is called the "universal antioxidant" as it is water and fat-soluble, making it easily absorbed and utilized by the body. It also greatly enhances the antioxidant benefits of Vitamins C and E. Dietary sources include dark leafy veggies like kale, collard greens, spinach, as well as broccoli, yeast and red meat.


10 Amino Acid

In skincare, amino acids are either used on their own to promote hydration and resilience, or strings of amino acids can be joined to form peptides. Peptide technology has evolved and as a result, there are many different peptides that offer a variety of beauty benefits. One example of a popular amino acid in skincare is Arginine.


11 Antioxidants

Antioxidants combat environmental stressors (free radicals) that can damage the skin. For example: Lemon Juice (containing the antioxidant Vitamin C) squeezed on an apple slice will help prevent the apple from turning brown. A "cocktail" of antioxidants can enhance the protective benefits of a product. Vitamins A, C, E energize each other and work better when used together than they would separately.


12 Apple Extract

Apple extract is derived from the fruit of the apple tree.


13 Arbutin

Arbutin is a plant-derived antioxidant which can help to promote an even skin tone. Mulberry and Bearberry are natural forms of arbutin used in skincare.


14 Argan Oil

Argan Oil has been used by Moroccan women for centuries for beauty benefits. It works well for all skin types as an emollient ingredient that is rich in fatty acids which strengthen the natural protective barrier of the skin.


15 Arginine

Arginine is amino acid that interacts with skin like an antioxidant.


16 Ascorbyl Glucoside

Ascorbyl glucoside is an amped up version of vitamin C.


17 Avobenzone (Parsol 1789)

Avobenzone is often listed by the trade name Parsol 1789. This is one of the most utilized sunscreen ingredients in the world, because it absorbs the full spectrum of UVA rays.

syn: Parsol® 1789, PARSOL® 1789, Parsol 1789


18 Avocado Oil

Avocado Oil is used in skincare as it has been shown to visibly minimize sun damage, as well as restore suppleness. Adding avocados to your diet is not only a great-tasting way to get Essential Fatty Acids and Vitamins A, D and E, consuming their nutrients can also prove beneficial in maintaining healthy, radiant, soft skin.


19 Azelaic Acid

Azelaic acid is derived from yeast and is used in skincare typically to help promote an even skin tone (especially when used with glycolic acid).


20 Beauty Blemish Serum

The Beauty Blemish Serum, a concept originally created by dermatologists from Germany  to address the needs of delicate and post-procedural skin. These 5-in-1 perfectors contain treatment ingredients to address various skin concerns, moisturize dry and dehydrated skin, camouflage uneven skin tones, redness, and blemishes, prime the skin by filling in uneven texture and pores, and provide broad-spectrum SPF sun protection.


21 Bakuchiol

Bakuchiol is a natural plant extract that has proven to have the same powerful effects as retinol, but it is better for sensitive skin and safe for pregnancy and breastfeeding. This retinol alternative is derived from the babchi plant and, like retinol, it helps to stimulate cell turnover and collagen production to prevent signs of aging and fight acne.


22 Barley Extract

Barley is a plant-derived antioxidant that has an abundance of phenols and flavonoids. It helps to soothe, soften, and condition skin and can also fight signs of aging by inhibiting free radicals.


23 Benzoyl Peroxide (BPO)

Benzoyl Peroxide (BPO) is a very effective Over the Counter (OTC) topical acne treatment, fighting acne-specific bacteria. Most retinoids negate the effect of BPO, so use BPO and retinoids in rotation for best results. A best practice with this ingredient is to incorporate it slowly (every other night) into your skincare routine, as skin can adjust to tolerate BPO gradually. This may minimize the potential for redness and dryness when using BPO.


24 Beta-Glucan

Beta Glucan is used in skincare to help bind moisture to the skin and provide antioxidant protection. It can promote natural collagen as well as skin turnover to help minimize visible wrinkles.


25 Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA)

Salicylic (Beta-Hydroxy Acid or BHA) works to control excess oil production and reduces the stickiness of oil that clogs pores and contributes to breakouts. A true acne-fighting multi-tasker, salicylic also gently exfoliates the skin's surface.


26 Bilberry Fruit Extract

Bilberries are edible berries native to Northern Europe. Similar to blueberries, they contain anthocyanins and polyphenolic chemicals that give them a dark color. Although they are often enjoyed as a tea, bilberries are a rich source of antioxidants that can help protect the skin against environmental assaults. They also have anti-inflammatory properties that can soothe redness and reduce acne.


27 Birch Tree Water

Birch tree water is the sap directly harvested from birch trees. The sap is a rich source of trace minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and skin-loving nutrients that deeply hydrate the skin and refine the texture. In certain parts of the world, such as Korea, the sap is even sold for consumption due to its sweet taste and ample stores of nutrients.


28 Bis(Tripeptide 1) Copper Acetate

Bis(Tripeptide-1) Copper Acetate is a combination of copper and the amino acids glycine, histidine, and lysine. It aids in the regeneration of healthy skin cells and collagen and also activates the removal of damaged skin and scar tissue caused by age and UV exposure.


29 Black Cumin Seed Oil

Black cumin seed oil is derived from the seeds of a small flowering plant native to Southwest Asia. Rumored to have been part of Cleopatra’s beauty routine, this oil offers antibacterial and anti-inflammatory benefits and is ideal for skin struggling with acne, clogged pores, redness, and even eczema. A true multi-tasker, the oil also contains over 100 vitamins and minerals to hydrate the skin and protect it against signs of aging.


30 Blackhead (Comedone)

Blackheads can affect all skin types; they are often common for oily and combination skin especially. A blackhead (comedone) is a pore with oil trapped with dead skin cells. When the air oxidizes the oil, it darkens to create the 'black' color. Keeping the skin and pores free of debris with the help of salicylic acid or other exfoliation methods can be helpful for this concern.


31 BlackTea Ferment

The product of fermenting black tea with Saccharomyces yeast and Xylinum bacteria, black tea ferment provides a “lipofilling” effect. The cocktail of vitamins in ferment smoothes the skin and increases its radiance and improves its texture. If the fermentation process sounds familiar, that is because it is the same underlying process used to create kombucha drinks.


32 Caffeine

Caffeine’s energy-boosting effects are well known, courtesy of our beloved morning beverages. Developing research is showing that this stimulant can also be used to enhance your complexion. Its antioxidant powers and ability to soothe skin and fight inflammation are now firmly established; what is still unfounded, however, are increasingly popular claims that caffeine can also reduce puffiness and tackle cellulite.



33 Ceramides

Ceramides are lipids (fats) that represent about 50% of the skin's outer structure, which is in place to provide a barrier between you and the environment. Ceramides are used in skincare to help the skin to retain water, and to improve the barrier function of the skin. The healthy barrier function ceramides create also minimizes visible fine lines and keeps the skin supple and firm.


34 Cetyl Alcohol

There are different types of alcohol used in cosmetics for different reasons. SD Alcohol stands for 'specially denatured' alcohol, which is designed especially for cosmetics use to evaporate quickly, leaving the active ingredients on the skin's surface. Fatty alcohols are made from fatty acids and can be used as emollients, thickeners, or carrying agents for other ingredients. They attract water to keep moisture in the skin and can repel water to form a protective skin barrier. They also create a creamy texture.


35 Cherimoya Extract

Cherimoya Extract is a calming adaptogenic extract that helps establish healthy skin homeostasis, reducing inflammation, redness, and sensitivity that can result from hormonal imbalances. This bioadaptive active adjusts delivery based on your skin’s unique environment, helping enhance its natural ability to handle stress and restore a healthy glow.


36 Citric Acid

As its name suggests, citric acid is an ingredient that comes from citrus fruit. It is popular in skincare products because of its ability to brighten skin, treat hyperpigmentation, and minimize signs of aging, as well as its more technical use in helping to balance a formula’s pH. While it is a go-to antioxidant, it can also be a little intense for women with sensitive skin.


37 Coconut Alkanes

Coconut alkanes are emollients used to smooth skin, lock in moisture, and provide a natural “photo-filtered” effect. They work by filling the skin’s surface with fatty substances known as lipids. They are naturally derived from renewable sources and are a great replacement for silicones.


38 Coconut Water

Rich in proteins, amino acids, and electrolytes, coconut water is not only good for you to drink, it’s also great for your skin. When it is applied topically in skincare products, coconut water replenishes the skin’s mineral balance, provides deep hydration, and soothes minor irritations.


39 Coenzyme Q-10 (Ubiquinone) COQ10

CoQ10 in skincare protects lipids and proteins from oxidation and increases the effectiveness of other antioxidants. Meat, fish, avocado, and vegetable oil are great sources of dietary CoQ10.


40 Coffeeberry

A powerful antioxidant extracted from the fruit of the coffeeberry or California buckthorn plant.



41 Collagen

Collagen partners with elastin in your skin to create a smooth texture, structural integrity, and a healthy youthful appearance. Environmental and genetic aging reduce collagen and elastin over time. Collagen is used in skin care to help to create a veil of moisture on the skin's surface, which visibly reduces the appearance of wrinkles.


42 Combination Skin

Combination skin can seem to have two different skin types-normal to dry on the cheeks or in isolated parts of the face, oilier and breakout-prone in the T-Zone. It is the most common skin type, and many products are formulated with the needs of combination skin in mind. Try customizing by using a cleanser for normal to dry skin to avoid stripping the skin of moisture and follow with a lotion for combination to oily skin for lightweight hydration. Spot treating with masks and exfoliants can help achieve healthy balance.


43 Copper lysinate

Copper Iysinate is an amino acid complex that diminishes the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by stimulating collagen and elastin production in the skin. It also restores the skin’s plump appearance by improving the skin’s density and firmness, which does double duty in reducing the appearance of wrinkles.



44 Cosmeceuticals 

Cosmeceuticals cosmetic products that contain biologically active ingredients and claim to have pharmaceutical benefits.



45 Date Palm Seed Extract

Date palm is an essential part of the diet in many Arabian countries, but its seeds have proven to also be a rich source of antioxidants and soothing ingredients. Apart from promoting skin luminance, it has calming effects, reducing redness from inflammation and irritation and enhancing skin tone.


46 Dimethicone

Silicone is derived from sand and is used in cosmetics to provide an aesthetically pleasing formula, especially in serums and moisturizers. There are different grades of silicone, and cosmetics-grade silicones create an elegant, silky, and spreadable texture in skincare products. Silicone is a desirable ingredient because it can deliver the active ingredients in the product and immediately smooth the look of imperfections. Silicones prevent moisture loss, and their properties make them porous (allowing the skin to breathe) as well as resistant to air.


47 Dry Skin

Dry skin may often feel tight after cleansing, so creamy cleansers and/or cleansing oils are a great choice for this skin type. Supplementing with and eating omega 3's can be helpful for dry skin. Avoid extreme weather conditions, drink plenty of water, and use a humidifier to help ease dry skin concerns. Try layering a hydrating mask on overnight to wake up to well-moisturized, glowing skin.


48 Elastin

Elastin allows your skin to expand and 'bounce-back' and is used in skincare to draw water into the skin as well as support the skin's flexibility. Sun exposure damages the network of elastin fibers in the skin over time, making sunscreen vitally important to the protection of elasticity in skin resilience.


49 Electrolytes

Electrolytes - minerals including potassium, sodium, calcium, chloride, phosphate, and magnesium - have a single-minded purpose: hydration. Just as drinking electrolytes can help regulate your fluid balance, skincare products that include these minerals can help attract and retain moisture in your skin.


50 Encapsulation

Encapsulation is a targeted delivery system that envelopes a key ingredient in a thin film, similar to a bubble. This protects the integrity of the ingredient and is an effective means of enhancing absorption of both water-soluble and fat-soluble ingredients. It can make active ingredients more tolerable, minimizing sensitivity while maximizing potency. Liposomes, microcapsules and nanosomes are examples. 


51 Enzymes

Enzymes dissolve surface skin cells for better product absorption and at the same time enhance skin compatibility. Enzymatic exfoliation is a favorite method for fresh, glowing, skin. Look for the 'Three P's': Papaya, Pineapple, and Pumpkin, which are frequently used in skincare.


52 Essential Fatty Acid (EFA)

Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) are needed for healthy, radiant, and soft skin. EFAs can't be produced by the body; dietary sources and supplements as well as skincare containing these ingredients are helpful in promoting nourished, supple skin. Great dietary EFA sources are fish, flaxseed, chia seeds, sunflower seeds, and walnuts.

syn: Carthamus Tinctorius, Safflower, Rosa canina, Rose Hip, Rosehip, Acai, Açaí, Euterpe Oleracea, EFA, Omega-3, Omega-6, Black Currant, Prunes Amygdalus, Borage, Borago officinalis, Linseed, Flaxseed, Linum Usitatissimum, Flax Seed, Evening Primrose, Oenothera biennis, Alpha-Linolenic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Sea Buckthorn, Seaberry, Hippophae rhamnoides, Hemp Seed, Cannabis sativa, Rapeseed, Canola, Brassica napus, Sesame, Sesamum indicum, Wheat Germ,Triticum vulgare, Sunflower, Helianthus Annuus, Meadowfoam, Limnanthes Alba, Apricot, Prunus Armeniaca, Camelina, Camelina sativa, Camellia, Camellia oleifera, Crambe, Crambe abyssinica, Macadamia, Macadamia Ternifolia, Sweet Almond, Prunus dulcis, Coconut, Cocos nucifera, Black Cumin, Nigella sativa, Shorea stenoptera, Illipe, Theobroma cacao, Cocoa, Astrocaryum Murumuru, Mangifera indica, Mango, Citrullus lanatus, Watermelon, Prunus Domestica, Plum, Rubus idaeus, Raspberry, Oryza Sativa, Rice Bran, Passiflora, Maracuja, Maracujá, Passion Flower, Attalea speciosa, Orbignya oleifera, Babassu


53 Essential Oils

Essential Oils are plant-derived, lightweight, and easily absorbed. Different varieties of essential oils achieve unique beauty benefits to increase radiance, balance oil, support natural circulation and for some, they enhance a sense of well-being. These potent oils are combined with suitable companion carrier oils in products for topical use.


54 Fermented Ingredients

Fermentation helps purify, refine and enhance bioavailability of the ingredients, so products are more readily accepted and absorbed by the skin. This allows the product to work with the skin and not against it, improving the skin's natural functions to make it brighter, stronger, and more resilient. Fermented ingredients are a growing trend in food and are thought to improve digestion and allow the body to better soak up food nutrients.


55 Ferulic Acid

Ferulic acid is an antioxidant from plants and is very effective partnered with Vitamins C and E to increase the efficacy and enhance stability of the formula.


56 Free Radicals

Free radicals are some of the biggest culprits of environmental aging, reducing the integrity of collagen and elastin in the skin, as well as decreasing the skin's natural rejuvenating abilities. Antioxidants protect against free-radical activity to promote skin's defenses.


57 Gallic acid

Gallic acid is a synthetic molecule that acts like metabolites found in many plants including grape seeds, rose, sumac, oak, and witch hazel. When it hits the skin’s microbiome, it is activated to reduce dark spots and melasma, brighten skin, reduce sebum and the appearance of pores, and generally fight signs of aging.


58 Garland Lily Extract

Garland Lily Extract is a multiprotector that enhances radiance and luminosity while offering protection from environmental aging factors like blue light, UV, and pollution. This is crucial to supporting a strong skin barrier that can protect and repair itself, especially for skin undergoing excess stress and hormonal imbalances.


59 Ginger Root Extract

Ginger has long been a staple in many cuisines, but the extract from the root of this spicy and peppery herb has been shown to soothe skin and protect it against external invaders, including sun damage, UV rays, and harsh climate conditions. It also contains antioxidants, which helps improve uneven skin tone and decrease the appearance of dark spots and scars.


60 Glucosyl Hesperidin

Glucosyl hesperidin is a natural flavonoid found in citrus plants such as lemons and limes. Traditionally used as a blood pressure medication, it has the ability to improve blood circulation and has found an application in skincare where it works to stimulate skin cells and provide other benefits, including improving dark circles, brightening and soothing skin, and combating the effects of aging.


61 Glutathione

Glutathione is a naturally occurring peptide antioxidant that acts as both an anti-aging and a skin brightening agent. It is comprised of three amino acids (cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine), which work synergistically to restore and brighten when added topically.


62 Gluten

Gluten is a protein derived from wheat and related grains, including barley and rye. There are some cosmetics products labeled as gluten-free. If you are interested in these products look for statements like 'gluten-free' or 'no gluten' on the product package label. Because of periodic changes in product ingredient formulations and sources, for the most up-to-date information the recommended practice is to contact brands directly regarding the gluten-free status of their products.


63 Glycerin

Glycerin is used in skincare as an emollient, slip agent, and humectant that absorbs moisture from the air and draws it into the skin. It is also enhancing the spread ability of cosmetic products. It has been studied and used extensively in skincare for its compatibility with other ingredients.


64 Glycolic Acid

See Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs). Glycolic Acid is the most commonly used Alpha Hydroxy Acid, as it is considered by most to be the best functioning and useful of all AHAs. Glycolic 'unglues' dead skin cells and enhances exfoliation. This improves the look of enlarged pores, acne scars and surface pigmentation, creating a luminous complexion.


65 Grape Extract

Grape extract contains natural organic acids, such as AHA and BHA, that are crucial in surfacing new skin cells and shedding dead ones. Mild, yet effective, this extract increases the radiance of the skin by enhancing cell turnover. Grapes also contain resveratrol, a potent antioxidant that protects the skin against environmental stressors and minimizes redness caused by sensitivity.


66 Green Tea Extract

When applied topically, green tea (or “camellia sinesis”) offers some of the same benefits for skin that it does for the body when consumed orally. This powerful antioxidant can treat signs of aging, fight environmental damage, and work to soothe and smooth skin overall. While green tea can provide benefits on its own, it is even more effective in products that pair it with one of the many other antioxidants used to support skin health.


67 Hibiscus Roselle Fruit Extract

The hibiscus roselle fruit extract has been shown to rehydrate skin for up to 72 hours after application and to protect it against damage and shrinkage caused by drying. The extract also strengthens the skin barrier to reduce further moisture loss.


68 Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic Acid is a key ingredient in many skincare products for all skin types, both for its moisture-retaining benefits as well as its ability to deliver other active ingredients like Vitamin C to the skin. It can attract up to 1,000 times weight in water from moisture in the air. It is also used in anti-aging skincare to plump the skin with moisture, reducing the appearance of fine lines.


69 4D Hyaluronic Acid

4D Hyaluronic Acid is made of 4 molecular sizes of hyaluronic acid that work throughout the skin and form a flexible film of hydration to replenish water at the surface while holding hydration deep within. Hyaluronic Acid is depleted in the skin with age, this biomimetic active retrains the skin from within to naturally restore hyaluronic acid helping improve longterm elasticity for plump and hydrated skin.


70 Hydroquinone

A highly effective ingredient for lightening dark spots and inhibiting melanin production. The FDA allows a maximum of 2% hydroquinone in Over-The-Counter cosmetic formulations. It is important to minimize sun exposure and protect the skin with SPF when using any skin-lightening product.


71 Hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation is characterized by dark spots and/ or larger dark patches. Heredity and sun exposure are both very important in the role of pigmentation. Since darker skin produces more melanin, it is also more prone to hyperpigmentation. Sun damage, inflammation, skin injuries (including post-acne inflammation), as well as hormonal changes, can contribute to dark spots. Products that treat hyperpigmentation address excess melanin, and exfoliating products like Alpha Hydroxy Acids help to break up surface pigment to promote an even skin tone. Make sure to use a broad-spectrum sunscreen and limit your sun exposure to best maintain brightening results.


72 Hyssop Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract

The hyssop plant is an edible, flowering shrub native to North America. Its flowers, leaves, and stems all offer exceptional soothing abilities that reduce signs of skin stress — like redness and inflammation — and contain antioxidants that even out skin tone and revive your natural glow.


73 Jojoba Oil

From jojoba plant seeds, jojoba oil is similar to the skin's natural oil. It is easily absorbed and works with the natural lipids in the skin, preventing water loss to soften the skin. It is very stable and is frequently found in moisturizers, lipsticks, and shampoos and conditioners.


74 Keratin

Keratin is a protein found in skin, hair, and nails, and so is often a featured ingredient in products that aim to fortify the outermost layer of skin, smooth and strengthen hair, and protect and nourish nails.


75 Kojic Acid

Kojic Acid is used in skin care to promote an even-toned, radiant complexion. It can help support the body's natural ability to combat excess melanin. It's often sourced from mushrooms or as a by-product of fermented rice in sake.


76 Lactic Acid

Another form of alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), lactic acid is used for its exfoliating and brightening properties. Most skincare uses a synthetic form, rather than that extracted from milk, so it is also often vegan.


77 Lemon Balm

Lemon balm is a natural antioxidant that soothes the skin. Its antibacterial and antifungal properties help purify the skin and prevent breakouts, while the trace elements of manganese, zinc, and selenium it contains help to calm skin and fight inflammation.


78 Lemon Extract

Lemons have long been a staple in food and drinks, but this fruit can also be used in skincare as it contains citric acid, which gently exfoliates dead skin cells to smooth out rough skin and enhance radiance. It is often used in combination with other fruit extracts, such as orange and apple, that have similar properties. 

79 Licorice Root Extract

As a supplement, licorice root is a well-known anti-inflammatory, and it has similar properties when it’s included in skincare products. Licorice root extract is known to soothe skin, which makes it a great ingredient for those with heightened sensitivity, and it’s also an antioxidant that can help combat hyperpigmentation and other symptoms of aging and skin damage.


80 Linoleic Acid

Linoleic acid is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid that is naturally found in corn, safflower, and sunflower oils. Similar to linolenic acid, it is used as an emollient, which means it softens and soothes the skin, and also helps repair the skin barrier.


81 Magus Butter

Extracted from the seeds of the mahua plant native to India, this melt-on-your-skin butter contains a rich store of fatty acids like linolenic acid that moisturize the skin, which in turn increases its elasticity and prevents fine lines and wrinkles.


82 Mangosteen Seed Oil

The queen of fruits, the mangosteen has a sweet and sour flavor and is commonly consumed in southeast Asia. The mangosteen contains antioxidants called xanthones, which repair cells damaged by free radicals and promote microcirculation to improve skin vibrancy.


83 Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone your body naturally produces and is responsible for regulating your sleep cycle and counterbalancing the stress hormone cortisol. Melatonin has just recently been applied topically for skin benefits, but research shows that it may be a more potent antioxidant than Vitamin C or E for its ability to penetrate cellular membranes and protect mitochondria and DNA from oxidative damage. It also stimulates your body to produce more antioxidant enzymes, resulting in additional healing from oxidative stressors such as UV light, blue light and pollution.  


84 Melanin

A term used to reference natural pigments found in skin, hair, and areas of the eye. Helps protect skin from UVB damage.


85 Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology in skincare formulations improves delivery, stability, and enhances efficacy of key ingredients. The most common types of nanoparticles used in skincare are the physical sunscreen ingredients Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. Nanotechnology enhances sun protection formulas and gives these sunscreen formulas a more elegant feel and undetectable look on skin.


86 Neurophroline

Neurophroline, a plant extract derived from the seeds of wild indigo, is an active botanical that can block the production of cortisol at the surface of your skin by up to 70%. Without cortisol, your skin is less likely to become irritated or inflamed. Neurophroline also helps to activate the release of beta-endorphin, which helps to provide further soothing effects.


87 Niacinamide

Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) provides a host of restorative skin benefits, visibly improving the appearance of dullness, fine lines, enlarged pores, and uneven skin tone while repairing UV damage. This antioxidant is especially helpful in calming and restoring skin stressed from hormone levels that are out of balance.

Niacinamide supports the barrier function of the skin and natural ceramides, to minimize visible redness and prevent dehydration. It can increase skin energy and promote a youthful glow, improving the look of dark spots and large pores.


88 Normal Skin

Ideally balanced, normal skin typically has an even complexion and refined pores. Normal skin types should focus on protection from environmental stressors including the sun to maintain its happy condition.


89 Octinoxate

Octinoxate (also known as Octyl Methoxycinnamate) is the most widely used UVB sunscreen ingredient. It is often combined with Zinc Oxide for UVA/ UVB Broad-Spectrum protection.


90 Octisalate

Octisalate aka Octyl Salicylate is typically combined with other SPF ingredients to further increase the UVB value and protection from sunburn.


91 Oily Skin

Oily skin is characterized by being oily all over; pores are more visible and consistently over-produce oil leading to blackheads, whiteheads, and blemishes. Fine lines and wrinkles are less likely to appear until the skin progresses to a Combination skin type with age. Certain cleansing oils can work surprisingly well for this skin type, and products with salicylic acid help to reduce excess oil and shine. Hyaluronic acid, aloe, and glycerin tend to be good balancing ingredients for this skin type to look for in a moisturizer.


92 Olive

Olive oil and one of its key elements, squalene, is beneficial for dry skin because of its fatty acid content. It is an excellent carrier oil for essential oils used in skincare and can increase the skin's ability to retain moisture. Olive has historically been a renowned dietary staple for its health and beauty benefits.


93 Orange Extract

Oranges need no introduction as a food, but in skincare, the fruit’s extract contains exfoliants such as citric acid and malic acid that help the skin gently shed dead skin cells to reveal smoother looking skin. It is often used in combination with other fruit extracts, such as lemon and apple, that have similar properties.


94 Oxybenzone

Oxybenzone is known to be an effective sunscreen for both UVA and UVB rays. It is also used to maintain the efficacy of sunscreen ingredients and may be added to ensure the optimal performance. Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567


95 Parabens

Parabens are synthetic preservatives used to inhibit bacteria and microbes from growing in products. They are very stable and highly efficacious. They have a long history of use and are commonly found in foods, pharmaceuticals, as well as personal care products.


96 Parsol 1789

Avobenzone is often listed by the trade name Parsol 1789. This is one of the most utilized sunscreen ingredients in the world, because it absorbs the full spectrum of UVA rays.


97 Pentylene Glycol

Pentylene glycol is a safe synthetic chemical that both increases moisture in the skin, and helps to keep skincare products stable.


98 Peptides

Peptides are used in skincare for promoting firmness and minimizing visible signs of aging such as fine lines and wrinkles, and dark spots. Peptide technology is based on creating and manipulating chains of amino acids and proteins, and this technology has quickly evolved to address multiple skincare concerns.


99 Petrochemicals

Petrochemicals are used in cosmetics to improve texture and spreadability, and can help to form a protective barrier, promoting a restored lipid layer. Cosmetics-grade mineral oil, petrolatum, and paraffin are commonly used in skincare products. Common examples are lip balms and hand creams designed to prevent chapping.


100 Phenoxyethanol

Phenoxyethanol is a preservative used to prevent bacterial growth in your skincare products. Preservatives are necessary in skincare products to maintain the potency of key actives that drive the product’s effectiveness. The European Union has deemed this preservative safe when used at levels below 1%.


101 pH Factor

pH refers to the level of acidity or alkalinity of an ingredient, product or the skin. Our skin is naturally acidic and can range from 4.4 to 5.6. The pH factor of skincare products is scientifically adjusted to work with specific ingredients to achieve desired benefits.


102 Phthalates

Phthalates may be used to stabilize, emulsify and increase viscosity, and to dissolve, suspend, and bind other ingredients. 


103 Plum Seed Oil 

Plums are known to be sweet, fiber-rich fruits that can be eaten fresh or dried, but in skincare, the lightweight oil extracted from their seeds contains a high concentration of potent antioxidants that helps promote healthier, bouncier-looking skin. The oil also contains vitamin C, which can brighten skin and fade dark spots.


104 Polymer

Thousands of cosmetic ingredients have been created using polymer science. Polymers protect and control the delivery of key ingredients. Polymer means "many parts" and does not indicate any specific formula; examples of natural polymers are polysaccharides, rubber, and cellulose.


105 Pomegranate Pericarp Extract

An extract from the pericarp (outer membrane) section of the pomegranate is known to be beneficial in aiding wound healing in acne-prone skin by protecting the skin’s outer layers. It also improves circulation and soothes minor irritations.


106 Poria Mushroom + Tall Reed Extracts

Poria Mushroom + Tall Reed Extracts is a powerful duo that clarifies and detoxes and reduces the appearance of enlarged pores in skin with high oil production. For more sensitive skin, the extracts also work to strengthen the skin’s protective barrier so that it can repair and defend itself.


107 Potassium Sorbate

Potassium sorbate is a common preservative found in skincare products. It is a safe alternative to parabens.


108 Protein

Protein is found in all living cells and is an important element in hair, skin, and nails. Wheat, soy and milk protein are commonly used proteins in skincare. Amino acids combine to form proteins and peptides, and different combinations are formulated to address various concerns. Proteins such as collagen and keratin fortify skin, hair and nails, contributing to the health of skin and hair and promoting strength.


109 Purslane Extract

Purslane extract is an extract of the purslane plant (a succulent) that is known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, and hydrating benefits. It is packed with vitamins and fatty acids including various dietary minerals, omega-3, omega-6 fatty acids, and ascorbic acid.


110 Rambutan Peel Extract

Rambutan Peel Extract biomimetically strengthens the skin’s protective barrier and re-energizes cellular function to increase hydration, firmness, and resilience. By mimicking your body's natural process of restoration and protection, it helps to stimulate longer-term support against hormonal imbalances.


111 Red Algae Extract

Red Algae Extract is packed with essential minerals that replenish depleted moisture from dry skin due to a compromised skin barrier from hormonal imbalance. This ingredient helps prevent water loss through the skin’s surface helping to maintain its water balance for long lasting hydration.


112 Resveratrol

The same powerful antioxidant that’s found in red wine and dark chocolate, resveratrol acts as a protective barrier for the skin and helps to stave off damage caused by pollution, the sun, and other environmental factors. It belongs to a class of antioxidants called polyphenols, which are also thought to help with brain health, boost digestion and prevent diseases like diabetes.



 113 Retinoids

Retinoids are derived from Vitamin A. Retinoids serve all skin types and many skin concerns well. Finding the right retinoid for your needs can help in improving cell turnover, reducing visible lines, minimizing enlarged pores, and promoting an even skin tone. For beginners, it can be helpful to start by using the retinoid every third night and gradually increase the frequency of use as your skin adjusts. Retinoids can make skin more photo-sensitive, so use a UVA/ UVB broad-spectrum sunscreen daily.


114 Rosehip Seed Oil

Rosehip Seed Oil is created by pressing the fruits and seeds of the rose plant to extract the oil. It may feel counterintuitive to use oil on acne-prone skin, but this ingredient contains a high concentration of essential unsaturated fatty acids such as linolenic and linoleic acid, which helps to moisturize and repair skin damaged by acne and sensitivity. Its vitamin C content adds an extra bonus of antioxidant properties.


115 Sage Oil

Sage oil is used to help control sebum, or the oily substance produced by skin glands. While this may have implications for acne prevention, this essential oil is also known to cause irritation and should be used with caution for anyone with a sensitivity to fragrance.


116 Salicylic Acid (BHA)

Salicylic (Beta-Hydroxy Acid or BHA) works to control excess oil production and reduces the stickiness of oil that clogs pores and contributes to breakouts. A true acne-fighting multi-tasker, salicylic also gently exfoliates the skin's surface.


117 Sea Fern Extract

The extract of the sea fern, or Dictyopteris polypodioides, is a rich source of polysaccharides, which are crucial to helping skin hydrate and retain moisture. The algae extract is also detoxifying, stimulating the skin to naturally flush out toxins and reduce the appearance of dark spots in a gentle yet effective way.


118 Silicone


119 Snow Mushroom Extract

Snow Mushroom Extract is a potent adaptogen that is a staple in traditional Chinese medicine with 500x the hydrating power of Hyaluronic Acid. Its hydration particles are also smaller than those of Hyaluronic Acid, allowing it to penetrate the skin deeply and deliver customized hydration to the skin. The extract binds moisture without over-saturating skin, so those with dry skin and those with excess oil can equally benefit.


120 Sodium Citrate

Sodium Citrate is derived from citric acid and is mainly used in skincare products as a preservative, but also provides antioxidant benefits and helps to maintain proper pH balance.


121 Sodium Gluconate

A form of gluconic acid, sodium gluconate works as a natural preservative in skincare products.



122 Sodium Hyaluronic

Sometimes referred to as “mini HA,” sodium hyaluronate is found naturally in skin tissue and is a smaller molecular form of the hyaluronic acid you know and love. It has all the same powers of hyaluronic, but because of its much smaller size, it is more effective at penetrating the skin barrier and can deliver added hydration and protection against moisture loss. Additionally, it is gentle on skin and provides antioxidant defenses as well as instant plumping.


123 Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer

Sodium hyaluronate crosspolmer is a vegan synthetic form of hyaluronic acid that has even greater hydration properties due to a modification that enables it to hang around the most outer layers of skin longer.



Sodium hydroxide, or lye, is a highly alkaline ingredient (non-acidic) used to maintain a balanced pH levels in skincare products. In high concentrations, it can cause skin irritation, but is safe when used at lower levels.


125 Sodium Lactate

Derived from lactic acid, sodium lactate is another agent used to regulate pH levels in skincare products.


126 Sodium PCA

Sodium PCA (pyrrolidone carboxylic acid) is found naturally in skin, where it pulls moisture out of the air to kickstart both hydration and rejuvenation. Skincare products can include a form of Sodium PCA derived from plants to enhance this function in skin. 

127 Squalane

Squalane is a biomimetic moisturizing active that is identical to the squalane naturally occurring in the skin barrier. It provides lasting moisturization without the greasy feel, making it ideal even for oilier skin. Squalane also has soothing properties to calm inflamed skin typically triggered by hormonal imbalances. Our Squalane is derived from sugarcane, making it sustainable and vegan.



Although sugar cane is more commonly consumed as a drink or used in cuisines in Southeast Asia, it also has beneficial applications in skincare. The extract of the sugar cane plant functions as a humectant, which helps skin attract and hold onto moisture. It has a secondary usage as a gentle skin exfoliant, as the extract contains glycolic acid.  


The extract from the sugar maple tree contains natural AHAs (alpha hydroxy acids). These acids help exfoliate dead skin cells to make way for new ones while also slowing down signs of aging, including wrinkles and blemishes.



Sulfur is an essential component in all living cells that can also commonly be found in rocks and minerals. When applied to skin, sulfur unclogs pores and removes impurities while exfoliating thick, dead skin cells. Because it can dry out skin, sulfur is more commonly used as a spot treatment to tackle acne.


131 Tamanu Seed Oil

This oil is extracted from the seeds of the tamanu nut tree, a tropical plant native to Southeast Asia and Polynesia. Tamanu oil has a dark green color, is thick in consistency, and has a high content of fatty acids like linoleic acid, which helps to moisturize the skin. Used medicinally by many Asian and Pacific Island cultures, the oil also contains anti-inflammatory properties and helps promote wound healing. When combined with other active skincare ingredients, the oil helps reduce the likelihood of a sensitive reaction to the product.



132 Tree Tea Oil

Derived from a small Australian tree, tea tree oil is a natural oil that has been used as a homeopathic remedy for coughs and skin healing for centuries. Its main benefit when it comes to skin is as a powerful antimicrobial agent — it kills the bacterial invaders that cause acne and inflammation. This function is effective against all types of acne, from smaller blemishes and whiteheads to blackheads and larger cystic acne, and it is safe for use during pregnancy.


133 Tiger Grass Extract

Tiger grass (“cica” or “gotu kola”) is a leafy medicinal plant found in parts of China, Japan, India, Australia, and the U.S. that has recently gained popularity thanks to Korean beauty trends. The vibrantly green plant is rich in amino acids, fatty acids, and antioxidants, which have been found to soothe inflammation, enhance cell repair, and boost collagen production.


134 Tocopherol

Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is an antioxidant that is naturally produced by the skin. It both protects against and is depleted by environmental factors, which is why it’s a powerful ingredient in many skincare products. Vitamin E’s efficacy protecting, brightening, and evening out skin tone is even greater when it is paired with vitamin C.


135 Turmeric

Turmeric is one of the most versatile spices. Not only does it contribute a delicious flavor and golden yellow color to food, but it is also renowned for its ability to decrease inflammation. As a skincare ingredient, it is a known antioxidant that can be used to soothe skin, decrease redness, and boost hydration.


136 White Lily Bulb Extract

The extract from the bulb of the white lily flower is essentially “sleep for the skin.” The extract enhances the skin’s natural defenses and protects the barrier from oxidative damage while also smoothing the skin, reducing wrinkles, and relaxing muscle cells. It has been called the natural alternative to Botox. 

137 Willow Bark Extract

Willow Bark Extract is a natural and more gentle alternative to salicylic acid. This multi-active ingredient purifies and exfoliates the skin, reduces the appearance of pores, and balances oil production. Also rich in polyphenols (antioxidants), Willow Bark helps help and soothe the skin. It uniquely tackles breakouts, without further disrupting hormones and is safe for pregnancy and breastfeeding.


138 ZINC  

Zinc is an element that some believe might have properties to fight acne and its lingering effects on skin. While zinc’s role as an anti-inflammatory when taken orally is well established, more research is needed to confirm the function it might play in skincare and how it can be used to the best effect.






[time] minutes ago, from [location]
The cookie settings on this website are set to 'allow all cookies' to give you the very best experience. Please click Accept Cookies to continue to use the site.
You have successfully subscribed!